It has been a long winter—the cold and dark days affect motivation and commitment to academics. This is true for students and if we are honest, it is true for faculty and staff. At midpoint of the spring semester, there is a certain level of fatigue that needs to be addressed.
First, let’s tackle students:
For a theoretical orientation to motivation and science of motivating learners, look here.
Although this link is to the Geoscience Department at Carlton College, the information here about motivating students is applicable to any department and any population of students. Take a look at how faculty behaviors can directly impact student motivation. You make a huge difference in your classroom!
Not to be outdone, Vanderbilt University examines the types of motivation students possess and how we can tap into these in ways that encourage success and GRIT when the going gets tough.
Now, let’s address the needs of faculty and staff. If you feel like your “get-up-and go” got up and went, then this link is for you:
Perhaps, there is a 12-step program for motivation, but maybe 7 steps are all you really need. Or maybe 8 steps are better.
Like researchers, many of us who work with students often hypothesize about what it takes for students to be successful in college. Why and how do some students overcome adversity when others collapse under the weight of these challenges? And, perhaps more importantly, what can we do to foster the skills and resilience that college requires? Angela Lee Duckworth says it comes down to grit. Images of John Wayne may come to mind with good reason—true grit may be rare, but it is out there for us to discover and develop.
Ted Talk: Angela Lee Duckworth with a introduction to grit and what it means.
She has also written an excellent journal article on grit and the ability to reach long term goals.
Her work is so potentially important in education and our approach to student struggle that the Chronicle of Higher Education has focused on her work.
In Feb 2013, the Department of Education released a draft report on Promoting Grit, Tenacity and Perseverance Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century.
This report includes interesting strategies to foster a sense of stick-to-it-ness in our students and why it is deemed to be so important for creating students who have the ability to reach long term goals.
Explore ideas for your classroom here.
The article entitled The New, Nonlinear Path Through College, provides us with a gentle reminder that many GCC students have tried or will try other educational opportunities. The path to a college degree is not as clear and simple as it once was—students have many choices and they often struggle to find the right fit. The danger is that many students start, but do not finish their degree. At GCC, it is critical to help prepare students for their futures through skill development and by creating confidence in their personal potential for success.
We must consider how we are helping students to enhance and develop skills in our courses, and also how we embrace their entry and in some cases, their re-entry. For adult students, using the principles of andragogy can make a significant difference in their comfort level and the value they place on prior learning (both formal and informal). Diverse voices must be heard in our classrooms and we must create a safe educational space for students with different perspectives and life philosophies. University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching has a wealth of information on building a respectful and dynamic classroom, and honoring the needs of diverse learners.
Making a personal connection with each student, whether our role is as advisor, support staff or faculty impacts how students feels about their GCC experience. The key is building rapport. Knowing one personal and positive thing about each student creates a starting point—it might be something about their family, work, a favorite hobby or sport. Building rapport and engaging students on this level that shows we care about them as individuals and learners, and that we value their commitment to GCC and the choice they have made to be a student here.
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- Reusing existing Open Educational Resources (OER) can save significant time and effort by using educational materials that already exist. Search there extensive list of resources for materials for your courses and projects.
Many instructors seek strong pedagogical/theory-driven teaching and instructional approaches that show students are learning and that they can demonstrate the essential course objectives. Perhaps an additional goal is to create a culturally-responsive atmosphere for learners where they feel welcomed and included in decision making and the learning process as a whole. Additionally, students need to understand the value of what they are learning and how it applies to their lives. The work of Paulo Freire is relevant toward this goal, but at the same time there are simple steps we can take in our classroom to promote cooperation and collaboration.
Adult learners are different than traditional college students—based on age, development, life stage, career and family. As a result, adult students sometimes feel isolated and distanced from their traditional-aged colleagues and the learning experience They need an instructional strategy that reflects their unique needs and goals. Student-centered andragogy (adult learning theory) offers a framework for individual growth and problem-solving through learning.
Core concepts of andragogy focus on learner interests, self-concept, prior experience, learning readiness, learning orientation and motivation. Adult learners bring a wealth of experiences related to learning, and have perceptions about their abilities, strengths and weaknesses. It is important for instructors to understand personal learning histories and student perceptions about how they learn best and what they want and need to learn. Andragogical principles make learning relevant and meaningful which stimulates student excitement, engagement and participation. The result is a classroom where experiences of all learners are respected and diversity is valued. Knowledge and deeper understanding is developed through sharing and collaboration. Review the article Motivating Students with Teaching Techniques that Establish Relevance, Promote Autonomy.
Principles of andragogy encourage students to embrace learning though goal exploration, peer and faculty collaboration, formulation of learning objectives and goal setting. Instructors build trust and cooperation using specific teaching strategies that rely on consultation and participation with adult students. Andragogical principles can be adapted to any classroom, traditional or online. Andragogy focuses areas for student growth such as organization, time management, prioritization, study skills, self-evaluation, and communication and negotiation.
Principles of Adult Learning
There is no single approach to teaching that works best. What we do in the classroom depends on who we are, who our students are, what we are teaching, and many other factors. There are some guiding principles that can help use to create the condition that support and promote learning.
Looking at this graphic, it seems that active classroom activities may help students learn and retain information in ways that traditional lectures do not. Get students engaged and excited about their learning using Active Learning methods.
Look for ways to prompt students to think more deeply about course concepts and the learning process through Prompts That Get Students to Analyze, Reflect, Relate, and Question.
The Flipped Classroom
The Flipped Classroom is a teaching approach that moves lectures outside of the classroom to allow classroom time to be spent in more dynamic learning activities. Before arriving to class, students often watch recorded video lectures and read through lecture materials, complete a basic assessment to ensure they have understood basic concepts. They then arrive in the classroom ready to engage with their peers in discussions and other student-centered learning activities. Looking at the Learning Pyramid provides some incentive to move away from lectures to more practice-based activities in the classroom.
Overview: Watch one instructors approach in her YouTube video
The Flipped Classroom: Pro and Cons
Flipping A Class: A How-to Guide for Beginners
This teaching strategy seems to be gaining momentum because it gets results. Shaking up tried and true teaching methods can be controversial and this approach is not for everyone, but for some teachers and students, it is breathing new life into the learning experience. Read more from the NYTimes on the Flipped Classroom.
A common goal and challenge for online faculty is to increase student participation in online classes. Not only does participation help promote student retention and satisfaction, but it also helps demonstrate student learning and understanding of course concepts. Encouraging student participation involves well-crafted assignments that link learning objectives with appropriate online learning tools. Students need to understand what is expected in an online discussion and how these assignments will be graded to help them meet expectations.
Provide students with some Tips for online classes to get them acclimated to the online environment.
This presentation from the New England Faculty Development Consortium Annual Conference in 2012 highlights best practices for online student participation and ideas about how to engage students using blogs, discussions and online learning journals.Engaging distance learners NEFDC 2012
Writing strong discussion questions can seem daunting. The goal is to stimulate student interest and promote learning. Use this resource from the University of Oregon to get started. Discussion question types University of OR
What is the role of faculty in online discussions? How often should the instructor post? Faculty online posts
Learn more about structuring online discussions. Look for new and innovative discussion activities from Laurel Warren Trufant in her article Move over Socrates…Online Discussion is here
Students may be uncertain how best to communicate with their colleagues and their instructor in an online class–from emailing to posting in discussions, students often need additional information. It is the faculty’s responsibility to set the ground rules about communication and the tone of the learning community. While there are many opinions about communication style and the use of specific language, most faculty can agree that they want to promote an atmosphere of respect and tolerance where multiple voices can be heard and all students are encouraged to share their ideas.
This document on EMAIL ETIQUETTE explains to students how to create a professional email that is not only appropriate for college interactions, but is also helpful for students in the work world.
Click on the image for some ideas about Netiquette: the Social Code of Online Students and how to promote civility and communication among students.
Here is just one set of “rules” for posting in an online class. Edit the list to fit your course needs. How to communicate and participate in online classes. The University of Pittsburgh provides advanced tips on netiquette for students.